2. How to model one to many relationships?ΒΆ

In relational databases, a one-to-many relationship occurs when a parent record in one table can potentially reference several child records in another table. In a one-to-many relationship, the parent is not required to have child records; therefore, the one-to-many relationship allows zero child records, a single child record or multiple child records. To define a many-to-one relationship, use ForeignKey.:

class Article(models.Model):
    headline = models.CharField(max_length=100)
    pub_date = models.DateField()
    reporter = models.ForeignKey(User, on_delete=models.CASCADE, related_name='reporter')

    def __str__(self):
        return self.headline

    class Meta:
        ordering = ('headline',)

>>> u1 = User(username='johny1', first_name='Johny', last_name='Smith', email='[email protected]')
>>> u1.save()
>>> u2 = User(username='alien', first_name='Alien', last_name='Mars', email='[email protected]')
>>> u2.save()
>>> from datetime import date
>>> a1 = Article(headline="This is a test", pub_date=date(2018, 3, 6), reporter=u1)
>>> a1.save()
>>> a1.reporter.id
>>> a1.reporter
<User: johny1>

If you try to assign an object before saving it you will encounter a ValueError

>>> u3 = User(username='someuser', first_name='Some', last_name='User', email='[email protected]')
>>> Article.objects.create(headline="This is a test", pub_date=date(2018, 3, 7), reporter=u1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: save() prohibited to prevent data loss due to unsaved related object 'reporter'.
>>> Article.objects.create(headline="This is a test", pub_date=date(2018, 3, 7), reporter=u1)
>>> Article.objects.filter(reporter=u1)
<QuerySet [<Article: This is a test>, <Article: This is a test>]>

The above queryset shows User u1 with multiple Articles. Hence One to Many.